General Information:

Id: 1,970 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Homo sapiens
article
Reference: Kohlstedt K et al.(2011) Adipocyte-derived lipids increase angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression and modulate macrophage phenotype Basic Res. Cardiol. 106: 205-215 [PMID: 21116821]

Interaction Information:

Comment ACE expression was detectable in freshly isolated blood-derived monocytes but increased markedly during differentiation to macrophages in the presence of human serum.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15436

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Incubation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with conditioned medium from freshly isolated human adipocytes resulted in a 4-fold increase in ACE expression. The effect was insensitive to denaturation and different proteases but abolished after lipid extraction. mRNA levels of the major histocompatibility complex class II protein increased in parallel with ACE, whereas the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 decreased.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15437

environment

adipocyte-conditioned medium

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

in macrophages
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment The decrease in cytokine expression in adipocyte-conditioned medium-treated macrophages was sensitive to ACE silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15447

gene/protein

ACE

decreases_activity of

in macrophages
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15448

tissue/cell line

M1 macrophage

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15449

tissue/cell line

M2 macrophage

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Mechanistically, adipocyte-conditioned medium stimulated the phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase and AMPK inhibition prevented the increase in ACE expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 15451

complex/PPI

AMPK

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45706

gene/protein

IL4

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

via increased M2 macrophage activity
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45707

gene/protein

IL13

increases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

via increased M2 macrophage activity
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45708

drug/chemical compound

Lipopolysaccharide

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

via increased M1 macrophage activity
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE
Comment Human macrophage ACE expression was also upregulated by IL-4 and IL-13, which promote the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 polarization) and decreased by LPS and IFN-gamma (M1 polarization).
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 45709

gene/protein

IFNG

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE

via increased M1 macrophage activity
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for IFNG or ACE