General Information:

Id: 11,841 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: COVID-19
SARS-CoV infection
Mammalia
review
Reference: Gheblawi M et al.Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System [PMID: 32264791]

Interaction Information:

Comment Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116900

gene/protein

ACE2

decreases_activity of

process

renin-angiotensin system

ACE2 is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116901

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

lung

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 has recently been identified as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the infective agent responsible for COVID-19, providing a critical link between immunity, inflammation, ACE2, and cardiovascular disease.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116902

gene/protein

ACE2

increases_activity of

disease

SARS-CoV-2 infection

as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor provides a critical link between immunity, inflammation, ACE2, and cardiovascular disease
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment The loss of ACE2 function following binding by SARS-CoV-2 is driven by endocytosis and activation of proteolytic cleavage and processing.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116903

disease

SARS-CoV-2 infection

decreases_activity of

gene/protein

ACE2

driven by endocytosis and activation of proteolytic cleavage and processing
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment The control of gut dysbiosis and vascular permeability by ACE2 has emerged as an essential mechanism of pulmonary hypertension and diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116904

gene/protein

ACE2

affects_activity of

environment

gut dysbiosis

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 offers protection in acute lung injury, suggesting that, although it facilitates viral entry at the epithelial surface, the ACE2/Ang 1–7 axis can be carefully manipulated to mitigate SARS-induced tissue injuries, which represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116905

gene/protein

ACE2

increases_activity of

at the epithelial surface
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 offers protection in acute lung injury, suggesting that, although it facilitates viral entry at the epithelial surface, the ACE2/Ang 1–7 axis can be carefully manipulated to mitigate SARS-induced tissue injuries, which represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116906

gene/protein

ACE2

decreases_activity of

process

SARS-induced tissue injuries

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116907

gene/protein

ACE2

increases_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116908

gene/protein

ACE2

interacts (colocalizes) with

environment

SARS-CoV-2

ACE2 is a SARS-CoV-2 receptor
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), facilitator of amino acid transport, and the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 receptor.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116909

gene/protein

ACE2

interacts (colocalizes) with

environment

SARS-CoV

ACE2 is a SARS-CoV receptor
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116910

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

kidney

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116911

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

gut

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116912

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

cardiovascular system

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116913

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

central nervous system

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2 is widely expressed, including, in the lungs, cardiovascular system, gut, kidneys, central nervous system, and adipose tissue.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116914

gene/protein

ACE2

is_expressed_in

tissue/cell line

adipose tissue

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment The control of gut dysbiosis and vascular permeability by ACE2 has emerged as an essential mechanism of pulmonary hypertension and diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116916

gene/protein

ACE2

affects_activity of

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)-mediated proteolytic cleavage of ACE2 is upregulated by endocytosed SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116918

gene/protein

ADAM17

increases_processing of

gene/protein

ACE2

via proteolytic cleavage
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ADAM17 or ACE2
Comment ACE2-mediated cardiovascular protection is lost following endocytosis of the enzyme along with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) viral particles.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116922

process

endocytosis

decreases_activity of

gene/protein

ACE2

concerning ACE2-mediated cardiovascular protection
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment ACE2-mediated cardiovascular protection is lost following endocytosis of the enzyme along with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) viral particles.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116955

gene/protein

ACE2

increases_activity of

process

cardiovascular protection

this is lost following endocytosis of the enzyme
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment The entry of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 into cells is facilitated by the interaction between viral S-protein with extracellular domains of the transmembrane ACE2 proteins, followed by subsequent downregulation of surface ACE2 expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116962

environment

SARS-CoV S protein

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE2

concerning downregulation of surface ACE2 expression
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment The entry of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 into cells is facilitated by the interaction between viral S-protein with extracellular domains of the transmembrane ACE2 proteins, followed by subsequent downregulation of surface ACE2 expression.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116963

environment

SARS-CoV-2 S protein

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE2

concerning downregulation of surface ACE2 expression
Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2