General Information:

Id: 11,778 (click here to show other Interactions for entry)
Diseases: COVID-19
Diabetes mellitus, type II - [OMIM]
Insulin resistance
Mammalia
review
Reference: Hussain A et al.(2020) COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 162 [PMID: 32278764]

Interaction Information:

Comment Viral entry into the host cells is a fundamental componen tof cross-species transmission, particularly for the coronaviruses (CoVs). Upon exposure of the host to the virus, all CoVs, through a Spike protein, bind to cells that express specific receptors. After binding to the target cells, the host-cell protease cleaves the spike, which allows the virus to enter and replicate. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as one of the main receptors for both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116650

environment

SARS-CoV S protein

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Viral entry into the host cells is a fundamental componen tof cross-species transmission, particularly for the coronaviruses (CoVs). Upon exposure of the host to the virus, all CoVs, through a Spike protein, bind to cells that express specific receptors. After binding to the target cells, the host-cell protease cleaves the spike, which allows the virus to enter and replicate. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as one of the main receptors for both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116651

environment

SARS-CoV-2 S protein

interacts (colocalizes) with

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Considering that ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its levels can be increased by ACEIs and ARBs, it has been argued that these drugs might affect negatively the outcome of COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, some have advocated that ACEIs and ARBs might rather be beneficial. SARS-CoV infection and the virus Spike protein reduce ACE2 expression. Mice injected with SARS-CoV Spike presented worsened acute lung failure, which could be attenuated by blocking the renin-angiotensin pathway. Nevertheless, a retrospective analysis performed on 112 patients with COVID-19 and CVD did not show a significant difference in the proportion of ACEI/ARB medication between survivors and non-survivors.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116653

drug/chemical compound

ACE inhibitor

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Considering that ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its levels can be increased by ACEIs and ARBs, it has been argued that these drugs might affect negatively the outcome of COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, some have advocated that ACEIs and ARBs might rather be beneficial. SARS-CoV infection and the virus Spike protein reduce ACE2 expression. Mice injected with SARS-CoV Spike presented worsened acute lung failure, which could be attenuated by blocking the renin-angiotensin pathway. Nevertheless, a retrospective analysis performed on 112 patients with COVID-19 and CVD did not show a significant difference in the proportion of ACEI/ARB medication between survivors and non-survivors.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116654

drug/chemical compound

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Considering that ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its levels can be increased by ACEIs and ARBs, it has been argued that these drugs might affect negatively the outcome of COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, some have advocated that ACEIs and ARBs might rather be beneficial. SARS-CoV infection and the virus Spike protein reduce ACE2 expression. Mice injected with SARS-CoV Spike presented worsened acute lung failure, which could be attenuated by blocking the renin-angiotensin pathway. Nevertheless, a retrospective analysis performed on 112 patients with COVID-19 and CVD did not show a significant difference in the proportion of ACEI/ARB medication between survivors and non-survivors.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116655

environment

SARS-CoV

decreases_expression of

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2
Comment Similar to ACEIs and ARBs, ibuprofen and thiazolidinediones can also result in increased levels of ACE2, thus generating questions regarding the safety of these drugs in patients with COVID-19.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116656

drug/chemical compound

Ibuprofen

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for Ibuprofen or ACE2
Comment Similar to ACEIs and ARBs, ibuprofen and thiazolidinediones can also result in increased levels of ACE2, thus generating questions regarding the safety of these drugs in patients with COVID-19.
Formal Description
Interaction-ID: 116657

drug/chemical compound

Thiazolidinedione

increases_quantity of

gene/protein

ACE2

Drugbank entries Show/Hide entries for ACE2