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Most thyroid carcinomas originate from thyroid follicular cells and are subdivided into well-differentiated papillary carcinoma (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC) (the latter further subclassified into conventional and oncocytic type). Both PCs and FCs may progress to poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) or may completely lose differentiation to give rise to anaplastic carcinoma (AC). Follicular adenomas (FAs) are benign thyroid tumors and can be of either conventional type or oncocytic type. Less than 5% of cells within the thyroid gland are C-cells that give rise to medullary carcinoma (MC).
In the article, only results of the 10 most upregulated miRNAs are presented. In fact, in the majority of thyroid tumors, 47 of 148 miRNAs (32%) were consistently up-regulated when compared with normal tissue, and 57 of 148 (38%) were down-regulated with more than a 2-fold change.