Lithium and its molecular targets
Lithium salts are being used in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that lithium also has a positive effect in other areas including cardio- and neuroprotective properties. The following Mg2+-dependent enzymes are known to be directly inhibited by lithium: inositol monophosphatase (IMPA1, IMPA2), inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase (INPP1), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3-beta and -alpha), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP), bisphosphate nucleotidase (BPNT1) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). In addition, lithium also affects the assembly of protein complexes such as AKT-ARRB2-PPP2CA complex or the assembly of the CREB1 cofactor CBP-CRTC1.